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  White Paper - Evolution of Industrial Design from when civilization began  
     
     
 
W H I T E   P A P E R
Six different utility products as they
evolve from history, become
contemporary and then
anticipate the latent perspective
Different utility products Chair Lamp Clock Tools Shoes Jewellery
CHAIR LAMP CLOCK TOOLS SHOE JEWELLERY
   
   
by Shombit Sengupta
 
 
   
 
Chair Evolution of Chair: Throughout their evolution cycle, chairs have always been designed to be
at an elevated position rather than on the floor
 
   
Assyrian bronze throne and footstool arrow Roman couch arrow Roman Study
Part of the Assyrian bronze
throne and footstool about
880 B.C.
 
  Roman couch made of bronze
  A Roman Study 476A.D.
       
  Arrow
Assyrian chairs Arrow Ancient Egyptian furniture
Assyrian chairs   Ancient Egyptian furniture
Arrow  
   
Repose of a king arrow Chair arrow Chair
Repose of a king       Arrow  
Sofa Arrow Chair Arrow Chair
      Meeting the challenge
of war: Office furniture
made from as little metal
as possible keeping all
ergonomic features
   
Arrow        
Bean bags arrow Rolling chair
Ergonomically designed Bean bags
for comfortable seating
  Chairs designed for
round the clock usage
 
  Top^
   
   
   
Lamp Evolution of Lamp: The throw of light is always up, whatever be the design of the lamp
 
 
Campfire arrow Torch - First portable lamp arrow Primitive lamps
The flaming touch and the
campfire probably constituted
early man's first use of 'artificial' lighting As early as 400,000 BC,
fire was kindled in the caves
of Peking man
  The torch was the
first portable lamp
  Primitive lamps, made from naturally occurring materials, such as rocks, shells, horns and stones, were filled with grease and had a fiber wick. Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel. 13,000 BC
       
  Arrow
Lamps Arrow Candle
Arrow   The invention of the candle
dates back to about 400 A.D
Early lamps arrow Kerosene lamps arrow Replica of the 1st light bulb
    Kerosene lamps    
       
  Arrow
Light bulb Arrow Light bulb Arrow Light bulb
        Replica of the 1st
light bulb 1874 AD
 
  Top^
 
 
 
Clock Evolution of Clock: Even the digital clocks, unlike the electronic watches, were never able
to keep the market captivated for long and have hands to show the time of day
 
 
Egyptian sun clock arrow Water clocks
Egyptian sun clock 350 BC   Water clocks were among the earliest timekeepers that didn't
depend on the observation of celestial bodies 325BC
   
  Arrow
European clocks
 
Arrow
 
European clocks
 
Arrow
Clock towers
Arrow  
  European clocks 500 – 1500 AD
  One of the most elaborate clock towers was built in 1088 CE.
This mechanism incorporated a
water-driven escapement invented about 725 CE. Since the rate of
flow of water is very difficult to control accurately, a clock based
on that flow could never achieve excellent accuracy. People were naturally led to other approaches
European clocks arrow European clocks arrow European clocks
 
  Top^
 
 
 
Tools Evolution of Tool: Tools have always been sharp and sleek irrespective of their use
 
 
Fragmentary spear point
Fragmentary spear point.
Probably early
Gerzean (circa 3500 BC)
arrow
Stone tools found in Egypt
  Stone tools found in Egypt, 12th century
arrow
Knives made from bones
Knives made from bones
 
  Arrow
Wooden tools used in America
 
Arrow
Ancient Nebraska tools
Wooden tools used in America, 18th century   Ancient Nebraska tools
Arrow    
Japanese farming tools arrow Wooden tools found in Egypt arrow Tools
Japanese farming tools   Wooden tools found in Egypt,
19th century
 
  Arrow
Tools Arrow Tools
 
  Top^
 
 
 
Shoes Evolution of Shoe: Shoes have always increased the effective use of feet and legs
 
 
17th Century arrow Basketry sandals arrow Ancient shoes
17th century   Basketry sandals of woven
reeds from Egypt
  Ancient shoes
       
  Arrow
20th century
 
Arrow
18th century
18th century
Arrow Medieval Arrow 18th century
        Medieval    
Arrow            
19th century arrow 19th century arrow 19th century
19th century      
  Arrow
       
20th century Arrow 20th century Arrow   20th century
        20th century
 
  Top^
 
 
 
Jewellery Evolution of Jewellery:
Identification of possession
 
 
arrow Ancient jewellery
Jewellery made from bones
Ancient jewellery from
Turkmenia, Afghanistan
Jewellery from Sumeria, 2500 BC.
 
Arrow
Jewellery
 
Arrow
  Arrow
Jewellery from Indus
Jewellery from
Sumeria, 2500 BC.
 
  550-530 BC
 
  Jewellery from Indus
Arrow        
3100BC in Egypt.  Gold Jewellery arrow 7th century BC Greek
3100BC in Egypt. Gold Jewellery   7th century BC Greek
   
  Arrow
Ancient Indian jewellery Arrow Ancient Indian jewellery
Ancient Indian jewellery    
Arrow    
Ancient Indian jewellery
 
  Top^
 
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